Trans-Ancestry Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analysis of Prostate Cancer Identifies New Susceptibility Loci and Informs Genetic Risk Prediction

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84–5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36–4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14–2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71–0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.


David V. Conti, Burcu F. Darst, Lilit C. Moss, Edward J. Saunders, Xin Sheng, Alisha Chou, Fredrick R. Schumacher, Ali Amin Al Olama, Sara Benlloch, Tokhir Dadaev, Mark N. Brook, Ali Sahimi, Thomas J. Hoffmann, Atushi Takahashi, Koichi Matsuda, Yukihide Momozawa, Masashi Fujita, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Peggy Wan, Loic Le Marchand, Lynne R. Wilkens, Victoria L. Stevens, Susan M. Gapstur, Brian D. Carter, Johanna Schleutker, Teuvo L. J. Tammela, Csilla Sipeky, Anssi Auvinen, Graham G. Giles, Melissa C. Southey, Robert J. MacInnis, Cezary Cybulski, Dominika Wokołorczyk, Jan Lubiński, David E. Neal, Jenny L. Donovan, Freddie C. Hamdy, Richard M. Martin, Børge G. Nordestgaard, Sune F. Nielsen, Maren Weischer, Stig E. Bojesen, Martin Andreas Røder, Peter Iversen, Jyotsna Batra, Suzanne Chambers, Leire Moya, Lisa Horvath, Judith A. Clements, Wayne Tilley, Gail P. Risbridger, Henrik Gronberg, Markus Aly, Robert Szulkin, Martin Eklund, Tobias Nordström, Nora Pashayan, Alison M. Dunning, Maya Ghoussaini, Ruth C. Travis, Tim J. Key, Elio Riboli, Jong Y. Park, Thomas A. Sellers, Hui-Yi Lin, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Lorelei A. Mucci, Edward Giovannucci, Sara Lindstrom, Peter Kraft, David J. Hunter, Kathryn L. Penney, Constance Turman, Catherine M. Tangen, Phyllis J. Goodman, Ian M. Thompson Jr., Robert J. Hamilton, Neil E. Fleshner, Antonio Finelli, Marie-Élise Parent, Janet L. Stanford, Elaine A. Ostrander, Milan S. Geybels, Stella Koutros, Laura E. Beane Freeman, Meir Stampfer, Alicja Wolk, Niclas Håkansson, Gerald L. Andriole, Robert N. Hoover, Mitchell J. Machiela, Karina Dalsgaard Sørensen, Michael Borre, William J. Blot, Wei Zheng, Edward D. Yeboah, James E. Mensah, Yong-Jie Lu, Hong-Wei Zhang, Ninghan Feng, Xueying Mao, Yudong Wu, Shan-Chao Zhao, Zan Sun, Stephen N. Thibodeau, Shannon K. McDonnell, Daniel J. Schaid, Catharine M. L. West, Neil Burnet, Gill Barnett, Christiane Maier, Thomas Schnoeller, Manuel Luedeke, Adam S. Kibel, Bettina F. Drake, Olivier Cussenot, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Florence Menegaux, Thérèse Truong, Yves Akoli Koudou, Esther M. John, Eli Marie Grindedal, Lovise Maehle, Kay-Tee Khaw, Sue A. Ingles, Mariana C. Stern, Ana Vega, Antonio Gómez-Caamaño, Laura Fachal, Barry S. Rosenstein, Sarah L. Kerns, Harry Ostrer, Manuel R. Teixeira, Paula Paulo, Andreia Brandão, Stephen Watya, Alexander Lubwama, Jeannette T. Bensen, Elizabeth T. H. Fontham, James Mohler, Jack A. Taylor, Manolis Kogevinas, Javier Llorca, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Craig C. Teerlink, Chad D. Huff, Sara S. Strom, Luc Multigner, Pascal Blanchet, Laurent Brureau, Radka Kaneva, Chavdar Slavov, Vanio Mitev, Robin J. Leach, Brandi Weaver, Hermann Brenner, Katarina Cuk, Bernd Holleczek, Kai-Uwe Saum, Eric A. Klein, Ann W. Hsing, Rick A. Kittles, Adam B. Murphy, Christopher J. Logothetis, Jeri Kim, Susan L. Neuhausen, Linda Steele, Yuan Chun Ding, William B. Isaacs, Barbara Nemesure, Anselm J. M. Hennis, John Carpten, Hardev Pandha, Agnieszka Michael, Kim De Ruyck, Gert De Meerleer, Piet Ost, Jianfeng Xu, Azad Razack, Jasmine Lim, Soo-Hwang Teo, Lisa F. Newcomb, Daniel W. Lin, Jay H. Fowke, Christine Neslund-Dudas, Benjamin A. Rybicki, Marija Gamulin, Davor Lessel, Tomislav Kulis, Nawaid Usmani, Sandeep Singhal, Matthew Parliament, Frank Claessens, Steven Joniau, Thomas Van den Broeck, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Jose Esteban Castelao, Maria Elena Martinez, Samantha Larkin, Paul A. Townsend, Claire Aukim-Hastie, William S. Bush, Melinda C. Aldrich, Dana C. Crawford, Shiv Srivastava, Jennifer C. Cullen, Gyorgy Petrovics, Graham Casey, Monique J. Roobol, Guido Jenster, Ron H. N. van Schaik, Jennifer J. Hu, Maureen Sanderson, Rohit Varma, Roberta McKean-Cowdin, Mina Torres, Nicholas Mancuso, Sonja I. Berndt, Stephen K. Van Den Eeden, Douglas F. Easton, Stephen J. Chanock, Michael B. Cook, Fredrik Wiklund, Hidewaki Nakagawa, John S. Witte, Rosalind A. Eeles, Zsofia Kote-Jarai & Christopher A. Haiman

Center for Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK; Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; Seidman Cancer Center, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH, USA; Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge, UK; Stroke Research Group, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan; Department of Genomic Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Suita, Japan; Laboratory of Clinical Genome Sequencing, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Biobank, Tokyo, Japan; Laboratory for Genotyping Development, RIKEN Center of Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan; Laboratory for Cancer Genomics, RIKEN Center of Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan; Division of Population Health, Health Services Research and Primary Care, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI, USA; Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA; Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Medical Genetics, Genomics, Laboratory Division, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland; Department of Urology, Tampere University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland; Unit of Health Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland; Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Precision Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; International Hereditary Cancer Center, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK; University of Cambridge, Department of Oncology, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK; Cancer Research UK, Cambridge Research Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre, Cambridge, UK; Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Faculty of Medical Science, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK; National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; Medical Research Council (MRC) Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; Copenhagen Prostate Cancer Center, Department of Urology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre–Queensland, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; University of Technology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Chris O’Brien Lifehouse (COBLH), Camperdown, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Dame Roma Mitchell Cancer Research Laboratories, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Prostate Cancer Translational Research Program, Cancer Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, and Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; SDS Life Science, Danderyd, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences at Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Applied Health Research, University College London, London, UK; Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Laboratory, Cambridge, UK; Department of Applied Health Research, University College London, London, UK; Open Targets, Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton, UK; Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK; Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA; Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; SWOG Statistical Center, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; CHRISTUS Santa Rosa Hospital – Medical Center, San Antonio, TX, USA; Department of Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Surgery (Urology), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Urology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Centre Armand-Frappier Santé Biotechnologie, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laval, Quebec, Canada; Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MI, USA; Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana; Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana; Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, John Vane Science Centre, London, UK; Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China; Wuxi Second Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China; Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, The Academy of Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China; Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; The People’s Hospital of Liaoning Province, The People’s Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Radiotherapy Related Research, The Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, and The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK; Humangenetik Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; Department of Urology, University Hospital, Ulm, Germany; genetikum, Neu-Ulm, Germany; Division of Urologic Surgery, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Sorbonne Universite, Tenon Hospital, Paris, France; CeRePP, Tenon Hospital, Paris, France; Exposome and Heredity, CESP (UMR 1018), Paris-Saclay Medical School, Paris-Saclay University, Inserm, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; CESP (UMR 1018), Paris-Saclay Medical School, Paris-Saclay University, Inserm, Villejuif, France; Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Clinical Gerontology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Fundación Pública Galega Medicina Xenómica, Santiago De Compostela, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago De Compostela, Spain; Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Madrid, Spain; Department of Radiation Oncology, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, SERGAS, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPO-Porto), Porto, Portugal; Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; Cancer Genetics Group, IPO-Porto Research Center (CI-IPOP), Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPO-Porto), Porto, Portugal; Uro Care, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Department of Urology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA; Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; University of Cantabria–IDIVAL, Santander, Spain; Division of Epidemiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; George E. Wahlen Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; University of Rennes, Inserm, EHESP, Irset (Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health), Rennes, France; CHU de Pointe-à-Pitre, University of the French Antilles, University of Rennes, Inserm, EHESP, Irset (Research Institute for Environmental and Occupational Health), Pointe-à-Pitre, France; Molecular Medicine Center, Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Urology and Alexandrovska University Hospital, Medical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Urology, Cancer Therapy and Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA; Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany; Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg, Germany; Saarland Cancer Registry, Saarbrücken, Germany; Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA; Glickman Urological & Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Medicine and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; Division of Health Equities, Department of Population Sciences, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA; Department of Urology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA; James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical Institution, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Family, Population and Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA; Chronic Disease Research Centre and Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Bridgetown, Barbados; Department of Translational Genomics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Surrey, Guildford, UK; Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Gent, Belgium; Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Gent, Belgium; Program for Personalized Cancer Care and Department of Surgery, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, USA; Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Cancer Research Malaysia (CRM), Outpatient Centre, Subang Jaya Medical Centre, Subang Jaya, Malaysia; Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA; Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA; Department of Oncology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia; Institute of Human Genetics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Urology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia; Department of Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Division of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Leuven, Belgium; Department of Urology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Genomic Medicine Group, Galician Foundation of Genomic Medicine, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago, Servicio Galego de Saúde, SERGAS, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; University of California San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA, USA; Genetic Oncology Unit, CHUVI Hospital, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica Galicia Sur (IISGS), Vigo, Spain; Moores Cancer Center, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; The University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK; Division of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre, Health Innovation Manchester, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; Cleveland Institute for Computational Biology, Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Thoracic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Center for Prostate Disease Research, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD, USA; Center for Public Health Genomics, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; Department of Urology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Clinical Chemistry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; The University of Miami School of Medicine, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL, USA; Department of Family and Community Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, USA; Southern California Eye Institute, CHA Hollywood Presbyterian Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA; Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Source: Conti, D.V., Darst, B.F., Moss, L.C. et al. Trans-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of prostate cancer identifies new susceptibility loci and informs genetic risk prediction. Nat Genet (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00748-0

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