Five-year Outcomes of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: A Large Cohort Study.

Although the use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer is of increasing interest, existing data are derived from small cohorts.

We describe clinical, histological, and radiological outcomes from an established AS programme, where protocol-based biopsies were omitted in favour of MRI-led monitoring.

Data on 672 men enrolled in AS between August 2004 and November 2017 (inclusion criteria: Gleason 3 + 3 or 3 + 4 localised prostate cancer, presenting prostate-specific antigen <20 ng/ml, and baseline mpMRI) were collected from the University College London Hospital (UCLH) database.

Primary outcomes were event-free survival (EFS; event defined as prostate cancer treatment, transition to watchful waiting, or death) and treatment-free survival (TFS). Secondary outcomes included rates of all-cause or prostate cancer-related mortality, metastasis, and upgrading to Gleason ≥4 + 3. Data on radiological and histological progression were also collected.

More than 3800 person-years (py) of follow-up were accrued (median: 58 mo; interquartile range 37-82 mo). Approximately 84.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.0-87.6) and 71.8% (95% CI: 68.2-75.6) of patients remained on AS at 3 and 5 yr, respectively. EFS and TFS were lower in those with MRI-visible (Likert 4-5) disease or secondary Gleason pattern 4 at baseline (log-rank test; p <  0.001). In total, 216 men were treated. There were 24 deaths, none of which was prostate cancer related (6.3/1000 py; 95% CI: 4.1-9.5). Metastases developed in eight men (2.1 events/1000 py; 95% CI: 1.0-4.3), whereas 27 men upgraded to Gleason ≥4 + 3 on follow-up biopsy (7.7 events/1000 py; 95% CI: 5.2-11.3).

The rates of discontinuation, mortality, and metastasis in MRI-led surveillance are comparable with those of standard AS. MRI-visible disease and/or secondary Gleason grade 4 at baseline are associated with a greater likelihood of moving to active treatment at 5 yr. Further research will concentrate on optimising imaging intervals according to baseline risk.

In this report, we looked at the outcomes of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based surveillance for prostate cancer in a UK cohort. We found that this strategy could allow routine biopsies to be avoided. Secondary Gleason pattern 4 and MRI visibility are associated with increased rates of treatment. We conclude that MRI-based surveillance should be considered for the monitoring of small prostate tumours.

European urology. 2020 Apr 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Vasilis Stavrinides, Francesco Giganti, Bruce Trock, Shonit Punwani, Clare Allen, Alex Kirkham, Alex Freeman, Aiman Haider, Rhys Ball, Neil McCartan, Hayley Whitaker, Clement Orczyk, Mark Emberton, Caroline M Moore

Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK; Department of Urology, UCLH NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address: ., Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK; Department of Radiology, UCLH NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK., Division of Epidemiology, James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA., Department of Radiology, UCLH NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK., Department of Histopathology, UCLH NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK., Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK., Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK; Department of Urology, UCLH NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.