Factors associated with the use of diet and the use of exercise for prostate cancer by long-term survivors.

To assess the use of diet and the use of exercise for prostate cancer (and/or its treatments' side effects) by long-term survivors and whether such use is associated with selected socio-demographic, clinical, health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) and psychological factors.

Population-based cohort study in New South Wales, Australia of prostate cancer survivors aged <70 years at diagnosis and who returned a 10-year follow-up questionnaire.

Validated instruments assessed patient's HRQOL and psychological well-being. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted relative proportions (RRs) of prostate cancer survivor groups who were currently eating differently ('using diet') or exercise differently ('using exercise') to help with their prostate cancer.

996 (61.0% of 1634) participants completed the 10-year questionnaire of whom 118 (11.8%; 95%CI[9.8-13.9]) were using diet and 78 (7.8%; 95%CI[6.2-9.5]) were using exercise to help with their prostate cancer. Men were more likely to use diet or use exercise for prostate cancer if they were younger (p-trend = 0.020 for diet, p-trend = 0.045 for exercise), more educated (p-trend<0.001, p-trend = 0.011), support group participants (p-nominal<0.001, p-nominal = 0.005), had higher Gleason score at diagnosis (p-trend<0.001, p-trend = 0.002) and had knowledge of cancer spread (p-nominal = 0.002, p-nominal = 0.001). Use of diet was also associated with receipt of androgen deprivation therapy (RR = 1.59; 95%CI[1.04-2.45]), a greater fear of cancer recurrence (p-trend = 0.010), cognitive avoidance (p-trend = 0.025) and greater perceived control of cancer course (p-trend = 0.014). Use of exercise was also associated with receipt of prostatectomy (RR = 2.02; 95%CI[1.12-3.63]), receipt of androgen deprivation therapy (RR = 2.20; 95%CI[1.34-3.61]) and less satisfaction with medical treatments (p-trend = 0.044).

Few long-term prostate cancer survivors use diet or exercise to help with their prostate cancer. Survivors may benefit from counselling on the scientific evidence supporting healthy eating and regular exercise for improving quality-of-life and cancer-related outcomes.

PloS one. 2019 Oct 03*** epublish ***

Suzanne Hughes, Sam Egger, Chelsea Carle, David P Smith, Suzanne Chambers, Clare Kahn, Cristina M Caperchione, Annette Moxey, Dianne L O'Connell

Cancer Research Division, Cancer Council New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia., Menzies Health Institute, Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia., Faculty of Health, Human Performance Research Centre, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia., School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.

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