High Diagnostic Performance of Short Magnetic Resonance Imaging Protocols for Prostate Cancer Detection in Biopsy-naïve Men: The Next Step in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Accessibility.

To make magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) more accessible to men at risk of high-grade prostate cancer (PCa), there is a need for quicker, simpler, and less costly MRI protocols.

To compare the diagnostic performance of monoplanar ("fast" biparametric MRI [bp-MRI]) and triplanar noncontrast bp-MRI with that of the current contrast-enhanced multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI) in the detection of high-grade PCa in biopsy-naïve men.

A prospective, multireader, head-to-head study included 626 biopsy-naïve men, between February 2015 and February 2018.

Men underwent prebiopsy contrast-enhanced mp-MRI. Prior to biopsy, two blinded expert readers subsequently assessed "fast" bp-MRI, bp-MRI, and mp-MRI. Thereafter, systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies (SBs) were performed. Men with suspicious mp-MRI (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System 3-5 lesions) also underwent MR-in-bore biopsy (MRGB).

Primary outcome was the diagnostic performance of each protocol for the detection of high-grade PCa. Secondary outcomes included the difference in biopsy avoidance, detection of low-grade PCa, acquisition times, decision curve analyses, inter-reader agreement, and direct costs. Results from combined MRGB and SB were used as the reference standard. High-grade PCa was defined as grade ≥2.

Sensitivity for high-grade PCa for all protocols was 95% (180/190; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 91-97%). Specificity was 65% (285/436; 95% CI: 61-70%) for "fast" bp-MRI and 69% (299/436; 95% CI: 64-73%) for bp-MRI and mp-MRI. With fast bp-MRI, 0.96% (6/626) more low-grade PCa was detected. Biopsy could be avoided in 47% for the fast bp-MRI and in 49% for the bp-MRI and mp-MRI protocols. Fast bp-MRI and bp-MRI can be performed in 8 and 13min, respectively, instead of 16min at lower direct costs. Inter-reader agreement was 90% for fast bp-MRI protocol and 93% for bp-MRI protocol. A main limitation is the generalizability of these results in less experienced centers.

Short MRI protocols can improve prostate MRI accessibility at a lower direct cost. For fast bp-MRI, this is at the cost of ∼2% more biopsies and ∼1% more overdetection of low-grade PCa. In order to implement this technique in nonexpert, low-volume, lower-field-strength scanners, further prospective studies have to be performed.

We compared the value of three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols for the detection of prostate cancer in men with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels. Our results show that, when used in expert centers, shorter MRI protocols do not compromise the detection of harmful disease. This increases MRI capacity at lower direct costs.

European urology. 2019 Jun 02 [Epub ahead of print]

Marloes van der Leest, Bas Israël, Erik Bastiaan Cornel, Patrik Zámecnik, Ivo G Schoots, Hans van der Lelij, Anwar R Padhani, Maroeska Rovers, Inge van Oort, Michiel Sedelaar, Christina Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Gerjon Hannink, Jeroen Veltman, Jelle Barentsz

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: ., Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Urology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands., Department of Urology, Ziekenhuis Groep Twente, Almelo-Hengelo, The Netherlands., Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands., Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maasstad Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands., Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood, UK., Department of Operating Rooms, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands., Department of Urology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands., Laboratory Pathology Oost-Nederland, Hengelo, The Netherlands., Department of Radiology, Ziekenhuis Groep Twente, Almelo-Hengelo, The Netherlands.

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