The rising incidence rate of the cancer in the prostate gland has increased the demand for improved diagnostic, imaging, and therapeutic approaches. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), with folate hydrolase and carboxypeptidase and, internalization activities, is highly expressed in the epithelial cells of the prostate gland and is strongly upregulated in prostatic adenocarcinoma, with elevated expression correlating with, metastasis, progression, and androgen independence. Recently, PSMA has been an active target of investigation by several approaches, including the successful utilization of small molecule inhibitors, RNA aptamer conjugates, PSMA-based immunotherapy, and PSMA-targeted prodrug therapy. Future investigations of PSMA in prostate cancer (PCa) should focus in particular on its intracellular activities and functions. The objective of this contribution is to review the current role of PSMA as a marker for PCa diagnosis, imaging, and therapy.
Frontiers in oncology. 2018 Dec 21*** epublish ***
Alessia Cimadamore, Monica Cheng, Matteo Santoni, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Nicola Battelli, Francesco Massari, Andrea B Galosi, Marina Scarpelli, Rodolfo Montironi
Section of Pathological Anatomy, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, Ancona, Italy., Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States., Oncology Unit, Macerata Hospital, Macerata, Italy., Department of Pathology and Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Cordoba, Spain., Division of Oncology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy., Institute of Urology, School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy.