Comparison of T2-Weighted Imaging, DWI, and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI for Calculation of Prostate Cancer Index Lesion Volume: Correlation With Whole-Mount Pathology.

The objective of our study was to investigate the comparative effectiveness of different MRI sequences for the estimation of index lesion volume in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) compared with ground truth volume measured on whole-mount pathology.

Patients with PCa underwent multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) on a 3-T MRI scanner before radical prostatectomy. Forty PCa index lesions were identified and outlined on histology by a pathologist. Two radiologists who were informed about the presence of PCa but were not aware of lesion outlines on histology worked in consensus to delineate PCa lesions on T2-weighted imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and early-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). The lesion volumes from different mpMRI sequences and the percentage of volume underestimation compared with pathology were calculated and correlated with volume at pathology. The repeated-measures ANOVA with the posthoc Bonferroni test was performed to evaluate whether the difference between the estimated tumor volumes was statistically significant.

The mean PCa lesion volume estimated from pathology, T2-weighted imaging, DWI (ADC maps), and DCE-MRI were 4.61 ± 4.99 (SD) cm3, 2.03 ± 2.96 cm3, 1.81 ± 2.76 cm3, and 3.48 ± 4.06 cm3, respectively. The lesion volumes on T2-weighted images (p = 0.000002), ADC maps (p = 0.000003), and DCE-MR images (p = 0.004412) were significantly lower than those from pathology. PCa lesion volume was significantly underestimated on T2-weighted images, ADC maps, and DCE-MR images compared with pathology by 54.98% ± 22.60% (mean ± SD), 58.59% ± 18.58%, and 18.33% ± 30.11%, respectively; underestimation using T2-weighted imaging (p = 1.01 × 10-11) and DWI (p = 2.94 × 10-11) was significantly higher than underestimation using DCE-MRI. Correlations between lesion volume estimated on T2-weighted images, ADC maps, and DCE-MR images with pathology were 0.91 (p = 9.03 × 10-16), 0.86 (p = 7.32 × 10-13), and 0.93 (p = 8.22 × 10-18), respectively.

DCE-MRI performed better than T2-weighted imaging and DWI for estimation of index PCa volume and therefore can be preferred over these other two sequences for volume estimation.

AJR. American journal of roentgenology. 2018 Dec 12 [Epub ahead of print]

Chongpeng Sun, Aritrick Chatterjee, Ambereen Yousuf, Tatjana Antic, Scott Eggener, Gregory S Karczmar, Aytekin Oto

1 Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave, Chicago, IL 60637., 3 Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL., 4 Department of Urology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.