[177Lu]-PSMA-617 radionuclide treatment in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (LuPSMA trial): a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 study

Progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer is a highly lethal disorder and new effective therapeutic agents that improve patient outcomes are urgently needed. Lutetium-177 [177Lu]-PSMA-617, a radiolabelled small molecule, binds with high affinity to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) enabling beta particle therapy targeted to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

We aimed to investigate the safety, efficacy, and effect on quality of life of [177Lu]-PSMA-617 in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who progressed after standard treatments.

In this single-arm, single-centre, phase 2 trial, we recruited men (aged 18 years and older) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and progressive disease after standard treatments, including taxane-based chemotherapy and second-generation anti-androgens, from the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Patients underwent a screening PSMA and FDG-PET/CT to confirm high PSMA-expression. Eligible patients had progressive disease defined by imaging (according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours [RECIST] or bone scan) or new pain in an area of radiographically evident disease, and were required to have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score of 2 or lower. Eligible patients received up to four cycles of intravenous [177Lu]-PSMA-617, at six weekly intervals. The primary endpoint was PSA response according to Prostate Cancer Clinical Trial Working Group criteria defined as a greater than 50% PSA decline from baseline and toxicity according to CTCAE. Additional primary endpoints were imaging responses (as measured by bone scan, CT, PSMA, and FDG PET/CT) and quality of life (assessed with the EORTC-Q30 and Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form questionnaires), all measured up to 3 months post completion of treatment. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number 12615000912583.

Between Aug 26, 2015, and Dec 8, 2016, 43 men were screened to identify 30 patients eligible for treatment. 26 (87%) had received at least one line of previous chemotherapy (80% docetaxel and 47% cabazitaxel) and 25 (83%) received prior abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, or both. The mean administered radioactivity was 7·5 GBq per cycle. 17 (57%) of 30 patients (95% CI 37-75) achieved a PSA decline of 50% or more. There were no treatment-related deaths. The most common toxic effects related to [177Lu]-PSMA-617 were grade 1 dry mouth recorded in 26 (87%) patients, grade 1 and 2 transient nausea in 15 (50%), and G1-2 fatigue in 15 (50%). Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia possibly attributed to [177Lu]-PSMA-617 occurred in four (13%) patients. Objective response in nodal or visceral disease was reported in 14 (82%) of 17 patients with measurable disease. Clinically meaningful improvements in pain severity and interference scores were recorded at all timepoints. 11 (37%) patients experienced a ten point or more improvement in global health score by the second cycle of treatment.

Our findings show that radionuclide treatment with [177Lu]-PSMA-617 has high response rates, low toxic effects, and reduction of pain in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have progressed after conventional treatments. This evidence supports the need for randomised controlled trials to further assess efficacy compared with current standards of care.

None.

The Lancet. Oncology. 2018 May 08 [Epub]

Michael S Hofman, John Violet, Rodney J Hicks, Justin Ferdinandus, Sue Ping Thang, Tim Akhurst, Amir Iravani, Grace Kong, Aravind Ravi Kumar, Declan G Murphy, Peter Eu, Price Jackson, Mark Scalzo, Scott G Williams, Shahneen Sandhu

Department of Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address: ., Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia., Department of Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia., Department of Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia., Cancer Surgery, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia., Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

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