Proton Beam Therapy Alone for Intermediate- or High-Risk Prostate Cancer: An Institutional Prospective Cohort Study

The role of proton beam therapy (PBT) as monotherapy for localized prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of PBT alone for these patients. Between January 2011 and July 2014, 218 patients with intermediate- and high-risk PCa who declined androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were enrolled to the study and were treated with PBT following one of the following protocols: 74 Gray (GyE) with 37 fractions (fr) (74 GyE/37 fr), 78 GyE/39 fr, and 70 GyE/28 fr. The 5-year progression-free survival rate in the intermediate- and high-risk groups was 97% and 83%, respectively (p = 0.002). The rate of grade 2 or higher late gastrointestinal toxicity was 3.9%, and a significant increased incidence was noted in those who received the 78 GyE/39 fr protocol (p < 0.05). Grade 2 or higher acute and late genitourinary toxicities were observed in 23.5% and 3.4% of patients, respectively. Our results indicated that PBT monotherapy can be a beneficial treatment for localized PCa. Furthermore, it can preserve the quality of life of these patients. We believe that this study provides crucial hypotheses for further study and for establishing new treatment strategies.

Cancers. 2018 Apr 10*** epublish ***

Takeshi Arimura, Takashi Yoshiura, Kyoko Matsukawa, Naoaki Kondo, Ikumi Kitano, Takashi Ogino

Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, 4233 Higashikata, Ibusuki, Kagoshima 8910304, Japan. ., Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 8908520, Japan. ., Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, 4233 Higashikata, Ibusuki, Kagoshima 8910304, Japan. ., Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, 4233 Higashikata, Ibusuki, Kagoshima 8910304, Japan. ., Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, 4233 Higashikata, Ibusuki, Kagoshima 8910304, Japan. ., Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, 4233 Higashikata, Ibusuki, Kagoshima 8910304, Japan. .

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