Identifying an Optimal Lymph Node Yield for Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Prognostic Impact of Surgical Dissection

To evaluate the prognostic impact of lymph node yield (LNY) on survival outcomes for penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

In all, 532 patients who underwent inguinal LN dissection (ILND) across tertiary referral centres from Europe, China, Brazil and North America were retrospectively evaluated.

From this cohort, 198 patients received pelvic LND (PLND).We identified threshold values for ILND and PLND using receiver operating characteristic curves. We tested prognostic value of LNY for recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meir method and Cox proportional hazard regression models.

The median (interquartile [IQR]) age was 59 (49-68) years and the median (IQR) follow-up after ILND was 28 (12-68.2) months. Overall, 85% of the patients had bilateral dissections. The median (IQR) number of inguinal LNs removed was 15 (10-22). Of those receiving PLND, The median (IQR) number of LNs was 13 (8-19). A LNY of ≥15 was used for dichotomisation of ILND patients, and a LNY of ≥9 was used in the PLND cohort. Patients with a LNY ≥15 had significantly better 5-year OS vs patients with a LNY <15 (70.1% vs 58.7%). On multivariable analyses, a LNY ≥15 was a predictor of OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.68, P = 0.029). For cN0 patients, a LNY ≥15 was an independent predictor of RFS (HR 0.52, P = 0.043) and OS (HR 0.53, P = 0.021). In the PLND cohort, a LNY ≥9 was a predictor of RFS (HR 0.53, P = 0.032).

Using one of the largest LND datasets to date, we found LNY to be a significant predictor of outcomes after lymphatic staging for penile SCC. Prospective validation is warranted.

BJU international. 2019 Jul 29 [Epub ahead of print]

Juan Chipollini, Mounsif Azizi, Salvatore Lo Vullo, Luigi Mariani, Yao Zhu, Ding W Ye, Antonio Augusto Ornellas, Nick Watkin, Michael Ager, Oliver Hakenberg, Axel Heidenreich, Daniele Raggi, Mario Catanzaro, Paulo Ornellas, Roberto Salvioni, Salim K Cheriyan, Andrea Necchi, Phillippe E Spiess

The University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA., H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA., Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano, Italy., Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China., Hospital Mário Kröeff and Brazilian Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil., NHS Foundation Trust, St. George's University Hospitals, London, UK., University Hospital Rostock, Rostock, Germany., Universitätsklinikum Köln, Köln, Germany.

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