Prostate cancer is one of the most common leading causes of cancer death in men.
Attributable to many genetic linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) around the world, several high-penetrance genetic variants have been identified. Many polymorphisms in genes, such as ELAC2 (locus HPC2), RNase L (locus hereditary prostate cancer 1 gene [HPC1]), and MSR1 have been recognized as important genetic factors that confer an increased risk of developing prostate cancer in many populations. A review of the literature was then performed analyzing the roles of these and other genes in prostate cancer. Our main challenge is optimizing the role of these genes in prostate cancer development, even trying to use these genes as general biomarkers. The principal aim of this review is to determine the most important variants in the principal genes related to prostate cancer and examine the differences among populations. The concept of individualized or personalized targeted cancer therapy has gained significant attention throughout oncology. In prostate cancer, the creation of a personalized panel of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) biomarkers may be important for the early and accurate detection of this cancer. As a result, the need for a good biomarker is required to detect prostate cancer earlier and to provide tools to follow patients during the early stages of the cancer. At present, prostate cancer continues to have an unclear etiology, which is a combination of genetic and numerous environmental factors. Among genetic factors, no variants of the RNase L, ELAC2, or MSR1 genes have been detected with similar expression patterns in different populations all around the world.
Alvarez-Cubero MJ, Saiz M, Martinez-Gonzalez LJ, Alvarez JC, Lorente JA, Cozar JM. Are you the author?
Laboratory of Genetic Identification, Legal Medicine and Toxicology Department, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
Reference: Urol Oncol. 2012 Nov 7. pii: S1078-1439(12)00253-0.