Background Ketoconazole (Keto), an antifungal drug and a common therapeutic option in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, is known to cause reproductive dysfunctions. Like Keto, melatonin has antifungal and anticarcinogenic actions. Moreover, the hormone has been used to reverse the damaging effects of different toxicants on the reproductive system. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of Keto with/without melatonin on selected biomarkers in rats. Methods Forty rats of 10 animals per group were used in this study, which lasted for 6 weeks. The control group was administered with saline (0.1 mL/day), while group 2 was administered with Keto during the last 3 weeks of experiment; however, in groups 3 and 4, Keto was administered during the first 3 weeks; thereafter, they were administered with saline and melatonin, respectively, during the subsequent 3 weeks. Keto and melatonin were administered at 100 and 10 mg/kg b.w./day (p.o.), respectively. Results The central effects of Keto are independent of the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin; however, relative to the control group, the drug significantly decreased the gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GNRH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH), substantiated by the corresponding significant decreases in sperm count and sperm morphology. Keto caused significant elevations in malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and a significant decrease in catalase (CAT) compared with the control group. Moreover, the drug triggered pro-inflammatory events. In group 3 (Keto recovery), MDA and uric acid levels were returned to the baseline (i.e. control), but not GNRH, LH, C-reactive protein (CRP), LDH, and CAT. Treatment with melatonin after Keto administration caused significant increases in FSH, LH, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), sperm count, and sperm morphology but significant decreases in MDA and CRP, relative to groups 2 and 3. Conclusions Melatonin ameliorates some biochemical alterations following ketoconazole administration.
Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology. 2020 Jan 11 [Epub ahead of print]
Luqman Olayaki, Wale Adeyemi, Quadri Alabi, Lateef Okeleji, Adeola Shoyoye, Elshaddai Sampson, Fatima Sulaiman, Abdul-Rahman Abdul-Azeez, Julius Omoniyi
Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria., Department of Physiology, Redeemer's University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria, Phone: +2348062599755., Department of Physiology, Adeleke University, Ede, Osun State, Nigeria.