Metastasis of cancer is the cause of the majority of cancer deaths. Active compound flaccidoxide-13-acetate, isolated from the soft coral Cladiella kashmani, has been found to exhibit anti-tumor activity. In this study, Boyden chamber analysis, Western blotting and gelatin zymography assays indicated that flaccidoxide-13-acetate exerted inhibitory effects on the migration and invasion of RT4 and T24 human bladder cancer cells. The results demonstrated that flaccidoxide-13-acetate, in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phosphatidylinositide-3 kinases (PI3K), p-PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, Ras homolog gene family, member A (Rho A), Ras, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3), and increased the expressions of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2 in RT4 and T24 cells. This study revealed that flaccidoxide-13-acetate suppressed cell migration and invasion by reducing the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9, regulated by the FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. In conclusion, our study was the first to demonstrate that flaccidoxide-13-acetate could be a potent medical agent for use in controlling the migration and invasion of bladder cancer.
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2017 Dec 27*** epublish ***
Choo-Aun Neoh, Wen-Tung Wu, Guo-Fong Dai, Jui-Hsin Su, Chih-I Liu, Tzu-Rong Su, Yu-Jen Wu
Department of Research, Pingtung Christian Hospital, Pingtung 90059, Taiwan. ., Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Meiho University, Pingtung 91202, Taiwan. ., Department of Biological Technology, Meiho University, Pingtung 91202, Taiwan. ., National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung 94450, Taiwan. ., Department of Nursing, Meiho University, Pingtung 91202, Taiwan. ., Antai Medical Care Cooperation Antai Tian-Sheng Memorial Hospital, Pingtung 92842, Taiwan. ., Department of Biological Technology, Meiho University, Pingtung 91202, Taiwan. .