Accurate staging of prostate cancer (PCa) at initial diagnosis and at biochemical recurrence is important to determine prognosis and the optimal treatment strategy. To date, treatment of metastatic PCa has mostly been based on the results of conventional imaging with abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy. However, these investigations have limited sensitivity and specificity which impairs their ability to accurately identify and quantify the true extent of active disease. Modern imaging modalities, such as those based on the detection of radioactively labeled tracers with combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning have been developed specifically for the detection of PCa. Novel radiotracers include 18F-sodium fluoride (NaF), 11C-/18F-fluorocholine (FCH), 18F-fluordihydrotestosterone (FDHT), 68Gallium and 18F-radiolabeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (e.g., 68Ga-PSMA-11, 18F-DCFPyL). PET/CT with these tracers outperforms conventional imaging. As a result of this, although their impact on outcome needs to be better defined in appropriate clinical trials, techniques like prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT have been rapidly adopted into clinical practice for (re)staging PCa. This review focuses on nuclear imaging for PCa bone metastases, summarizing the literature on conventional imaging (focusing on CT and bone scintigraphy-magnetic resonance imaging is not addressed in this review), highlighting the prognostic importance of high and low volume metastatic disease which serves as a driver for the development of better imaging techniques, and finally discussing modern nuclear imaging with novel radiotracers.
Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland). 2021 Jan 13*** epublish ***
Wietske I Luining, Dennie Meijer, Max R Dahele, André N Vis, Daniela E Oprea-Lager
Department of Urology, Prostate Cancer Network Netherlands, Amsterdam University Medical Center, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Center, VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Center, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.