Bone metastases can cause high morbidity and mortality, often developing as they advance, especially in patients with prostate and breast cancers. Most drugs are rarely distributed to the bone and are hence pharmacologically ineffective in treating bone metastases. The development of drug targeting technologies is required for the efficient treatment of bone metastases. To date, numerous bone-targeting ligands, including tetracyclines, bisphosphonates, aspartic acid, and aptamers have been developed and used for bone-targeted delivery of anti-tumor drugs, peptide/protein drugs, nucleic acid drugs, and diagnostic imaging agents. The conjugates of drugs with bone-targeting ligands were first developed in the field of bone drug targeting systems; macromolecular carriers and nanoparticles modified with these bone-targeting ligands have also been developed. Additionally, antibodies to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are used in active targeting bone metastatic prostate cancer and breast cancer, respectively. Some conjugates using antibodies to PSMA and HER2 were developed and used in clinical trials. In this review, recent challenges in the development of bone-targeted delivery systems and strategies for the treatment of bone metastasis have been summarized. Future development of novel drug formulations in order to optimize targeted drug delivery in the treatment of bone metastasis have also been discussed.
Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin. 2020 Jan [Epub]
Hidemasa Katsumi, Shugo Yamashita, Masaki Morishita, Akira Yamamoto
Department of Biopharmaceutics, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University.