Multidetector Computed Tomographic Urography (MDCTU): Its Practical Role in Diagnosis of Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer in Patients 50 years and Older with Different Types of Hematuria.

MDCTU is a preferred method for the investigation of malignant lesions in the upper urinary tract. However, to decrease unnecessary radiation exposure the indications for the exam in different groups of patients should be assessed. In this study, we evaluated the role of MDCTU in patients older than 50 years who presented with different types of hematuria. In a retrospective manner, we assessed the radiologic reports of 173 patients ≥50 years who underwent MDCTU as a part of the evaluation for hematuria. To estimate the accuracy of MDCTU in the detection of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC) we compared MDCTU findings with the results of ureteroscopy. We also evaluated which factors can predict ureteroscopic confirmation of MDCTU-based diagnosis. In this list we also included diabetes mellitus and anticoagulant medications. As a result, 140 (103 males and 37 females) patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean patients' age was 69.7±16.98. Smokers and passive smokers comprised 38.6% and 26.4% of our patients, while 37.8% of our patients suffered from DM and 45% took anticoagulant medications. MDCTU suspected urothelial carcinoma in 17% (n=24) of our patients: UUTUC in eight and bladder urothelial carcinoma (BUC) in 16patients. Ureteroscopy had diagnosed UUTUC (with/without concurrent urothelial carcinoma of the bladder) in 9 patients: 6 with suspicious lesions in MDCTU and 3 additional patients with CIS/small low grade TCC. MDCTU had a sensitivity of 66.7%, specificity - 98.5%, positive predictive value - 75% and negative predictive value - 97.7%. The logistic regression model revealed five strong predictors for UUTUC: positive/atypical cytology, recurrent hematuria, MDCTU signs, age and Warfarin treatment. Finally a source of hematuria was diagnosed in 57% of patients, while MDCTU individual accuracy reached 42%. We found that MDCTU can effectively identify patients in whom further endoscopy is unnecessary. Otherwise, elder patients with positive/atypical cytology and recurrent microscopic hematuria, who have MDCTU signs and take Warfarin, should undergo endoscopic evaluation.

Pathology oncology research : POR. 2017 Oct 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Sergey Kravchick, Eugenia Cherniavsky, Guy Verchovsky, Ronit Peled

Department of Urology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zrefin, Israel. ., Department of Roentgenology, Barzilai Medical Center, Ashkelon, Israel., Department of Urology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zrefin, Israel., Epidemiology and Statistics, Ben Gurion University, Beersheba, Israel.