Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a common malignancy amongst elderly. Increasing life expectancy, prevalence of smoking, lifelong exposure to environmental pollutants and immunosenescence contribute to growing number of cases. Traditionally, radical cystectomy (RC) with pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) constituted the mainstay of treatment for MIBC, but despite proven feasibility in elderly population, it has been associated with significant burden of morbidity, mortality, and complications.
We aimed to re-evaluate the safety and efficacy of RC amongst the elderly patients with MIBC.
This single-center, retrospective, observational comparative study was conducted among 568 patients who underwent RC due to MIBC between 2003 and 2021. We evaluated the influence of chronological age (<70 vs ≥70 years) on clinical, demographic, and pathological variables related to MIBC and RC.
Elderly patients had similar clinical and pathological features of disease compared to their younger counterparts; nonetheless, they more often received simplified urinary diversion, ie ureterostomy (60.25% vs 39.33%, p<0.001) and had no PLND (15.76% vs 8.5%, p=0.01) during RC. Furthermore, more elderly patients were treated for secondary MIBCs and fewer had history of smoking. Severe complication and 90-day mortality rates were comparable between groups; however, the elderly had significantly higher all-cause mortality at one year post RC (46.67% vs 33.25%, p=0.003). On multivariate analysis, one-year mortality risk was independently associated with elderly age (HR=2.119, 95% CI: 1.227-3.660, p=0.007), rural residency (HR=1.760, 95% CI: 1.043-2.968, p=0.034), extravesical extension of tumor (HR=2.109, 95% CI: 1.155-3.850, p=0.015), lymph node metastasis (HR=2.268, 95% CI: 1.290-3.987, p=0.004) and omission of PLND (HR=6.064, 95% CI: 2.926-12.568, p<0.001).
Radical cystectomy in elderly patients is associated with significant one-year mortality. Our study emphasizes the unmet need for considerate planning of treatment for MIBC in potentially vulnerable groups of elderly patients. Efforts are needed to reliably identify those unlikely to benefit from surgery and facilitate patient-centered choice of alternative therapies.
Clinical interventions in aging. 2022 Mar 10*** epublish ***
Artur Lemiński, Krystian Kaczmarek, Adam Gołąb, Katarzyna Kotfis, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Marcin Słojewski
Department of Urology and Urological Oncology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland., Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Therapy and Acute Intoxications, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland., Department of Biochemical Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland.