Incidence, risk factors and outcomes of urethral recurrence after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the incidence and risk factors of urethral recurrence (UR) as well as summarizing data on survival outcomes in patients with UR after radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched in February 2021 for studies of patients with UR after RC. Incidence and risk factors of UR were the primary endpoints. The secondary endpoint was survival outcomes in patients who experienced UR. Twenty-one studies, comprising 9,435 patients, were included in the quantitative synthesis. Orthotopic neobladder (ONB) diversion was associated with a decreased probability of UR compared to non-ONB (pooled OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.31-0.61, P < 0.001) and male patients had a significantly higher risk of UR compared to female patients (pooled OR: 3.16, 95% CI: 1.83-5.47, P < 0.001). Among risk factors, prostatic urethral or prostatic stromal involvement (pooled HR: 5.44, 95% CI: 3.58-8.26, P < 0.001; pooled HR: 5.90, 95% CI: 1.82-19.17, P = 0.003, respectively) and tumor multifocality (pooled HR: 2.97, 95% CI: 2.05-4.29, P < 0.001) were associated with worse urethral recurrence-free survival. Neither tumor stage (P = 0.63) nor CIS (P = 0.72) were associated with worse urethral recurrence-free survival. Patients with UR had a 5-year CSS that varied from 47% to 63% and an OS - from 40% to 74%; UR did not appear to be related to worse survival outcomes. Male patients treated with non-ONB diversion as well as patients with prostatic involvement and tumor multifocality seem to be at the highest risk of UR after RC. Risk-adjusted standardized surveillance protocols should be developed into clinical practice after RC.

Urologic oncology. 2021 Jul 12 [Epub ahead of print]

Ekaterina Laukhtina, Keiichiro Mori, David D Andrea, Marco Moschini, Mohammad Abufaraj, Francesco Soria, Andrea Mari, Wojciech Krajewski, Simone Albisinni, Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, Fahad Quhal, Reza Sari Motlagh, Hadi Mostafaei, Satoshi Katayama, Nico С Grossmann, Pawel Rajwa, Dmitry Enikeev, Kristin Zimmermann, Harun Fajkovic, Petr Glybochko, Shahrokh F Shariat, Benjamin Pradere, European Association of Urology–Young Academic Urologists Urothelial Carcinoma Working Group (EAU-YAU)

Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Urology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Urology, Luzerner Kantonsspital, Lucerne, Switzerland; Department of Urology and Division of Experimental Oncology, Urological Research Institute, Milano, Italy., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Division of Urology, Department of Special Surgery, Jordan University Hospital, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan., Division of Urology, Department of Surgical Sciences, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, University of Studies of Torino, Turin, Italy., Department of Urology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy., Department of Urology and Oncologic Urology, Wrocław Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland., Service d'Urologie, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium., S.H. Ho Urology Centre, Department of Surgery, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Urology, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Men's Health and Reproductive Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Research Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Urology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Urology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Urology, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland., Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia., Department of Urology, Federal Armed Services Hospital Koblenz, Koblenz, Germany., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Department of Urology, Federal Armed Services Hospital Koblenz, Koblenz, Germany., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia; Division of Urology, Department of Special Surgery, Jordan University Hospital, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; Karl Landsteiner Institute of Urology and Andrology, Vienna, Austria; Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, NY; Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX; Department of Urology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address: .

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