The combination cytology/epichek test in non muscle invasive bladder carcinoma follow-up: Effective tool or useless expence?

To identify in which cases after cytological diagnosis, the Bladder EpiCheck test could represent an effective tool in non-muscle invasive bladder carcinoma or an useless expence.

375 patients diagnosed with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, 269 with high grade urothelial carcinoma and 106 with carcinoma in situ, were treated and followed for 1 year. The treatment was an intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin in 305 patients and Mitomycin-C in 70 patients. During the follow-up patients were evaluated by voided urine cytology and white-light cystoscopy, according to the European Association of Urology Guidelines. Bladder EpiCheck test was performed together with cytology in all cases.

Analyzing Bladder Epicheck results for each category defined by the Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology, we found that the Episcore >60 correlates with histological diagnosis of high grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC) in atypical urothelial cells and Suspicious for High Grade Urothelial Carcinoma (P = 0.0002 Odds Ratio 0.05926 95% Confidence Interval from 0.01127 to 0.3116 and P = 0.0009 Odds Ratio 0.03155 95% Confidence Interval from 0.001683 to 0.5914, Fisher's exact test, respectively), while in Negative for high grade urothelial carcinoma and HGUC patients Episcore is not helpful to identify cases with histological diagnosis of HGUC (P = 0.101 and P = 0.58 Fisher's exact test, respectively). Considering an Episcore ≥ 90 in the HGUC cytological group, this seems not to be correlated with a histological diagnosis of HGUC (P = 0.090 Fisher's exact test).

Cytology and Bladder EpiCheck test in combination may have the potential to reduce cystoscopies in the follow-up of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer only for cytological diagnoses of atypical urothelial cells and Suspicious for High Grade Urothelial Carcinoma . Moreover, in patients with a cytological diagnosis of Negative for high grade urothelial carcinoma or HGUC, cytology alone seems to be safe and cost-effective.

Urologic oncology. 2020 Aug 06 [Epub ahead of print]

Francesco Pierconti, Maurizio Martini, Vincenzo Fiorentino, Tonia Cenci, Sara Capodimonti, Patrizia Straccia, Emilio Sacco, Dario Pugliese, Luca Cindolo, Luigi Maria Larocca, Pier Francesco Bassi

Institute of Pathology, Università Cattolica del S. Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico "A. Gemelli", Rome, Italy. Electronic address: ., Institute of Pathology, Università Cattolica del S. Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico "A. Gemelli", Rome, Italy., Institute of Urology, Università Cattolica del S. Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico "A. Gemelli", Rome, Italy., Dept of Urology "Villa Stuart" Private Hospital, Rome, Italy.

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