Contemporary Grading and Staging of Urothelial Neoplasms of the Urinary Bladder: New Concepts and Approaches to Challenging Scenarios

Grading and staging of urothelial neoplasm are the most crucial factors in risk stratification and management; both necessitate optimal accuracy and consistency. Several updates and recommendations have been provided though recent publications of the 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification, the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, and the International Consultation on Urological Diseases-European Association of Urology updates on bladder cancer.

Updates and recent studies have provided better insights into and approaches to the challenging scenarios in grading and staging of urothelial neoplasm; however, there remain aspects that need further investigation and refinement.

Surgical pathology clinics. 2018 Dec [Epub]

Alexander J Gallan, Bonnie Choy, Gladell P Paner

Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, AMB S626-MC6101, Chicago, IL 60637, USA., Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, AMB S626-MC6101, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, AMB S626-MC6101, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address: .

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