Bladder cancer (BC) is ones of the most common cancer worldwide. It is classified in muscle invasive (MIBC) and muscle non-invasive (NMIBC) BC. NMIBCs frequently recur and progress to MIBCs with a reduced survival rate and frequent distant metastasis. BC detection require unpleasant and expensive cystoscopy and biopsy, which are often accompanied by several adverse effects. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel diagnostic methods for initial detection and surveillance in both MIBCs and NMIBCs. Multiple urine-based tests approved by FDA for BC detection and surveillance are commercially available. However, at present, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of these urine-based assays are still suboptimal and, in the attend to improve them, novel molecular markers as well as multiple-assays must to be translated in clinic. Now there are growing evidence toward the use of minimally invasive "liquid biopsy" to identify biomarkers in urologic malignancy. DNA- and RNA-based markers in body fluids such as blood and urine are promising potential markers in diagnostic, prognostic, predictive and monitoring urological malignancies. Thus, circulating cell-free DNA, DNA methylation and mutations, circulating tumor cells, miRNA, IncRNA and mRNAs, cell-free proteins and peptides, and exosomes have been assessed in urine specimens. However, proteomic and genomic data must to be validated in well-designed multicenter clinical studies, before to be employed in clinic oncology.
Frontiers in oncology. 2018 Sep 07*** epublish ***
Giorgio Santoni, Maria B Morelli, Consuelo Amantini, Nicola Battelli
Immunopathology Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy., Immunopathology Laboratory, School of Biosciences, Biotechnology and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy., Oncology Unit, Macerata Hospital, Macerata, Italy.