Bladder cancer is one of the top 5 most common cancers diagnosed in the U.S. It is also one of the most expensive cancers to treat through the life course given its high rate of recurrence. While cigarette smoking and occupational exposures have been firmly established as risk factors, it is less certain whether modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity play roles in bladder cancer etiology and prognosis. This literature review based on a PubMed search summarizes the research to date on key dietary factors, types of physical activity, and smoking in relation to bladder cancer incidence, and discusses the potential public health implications for formalized smoking cessation programs among recently diagnosed patients. Overall, population-based research in bladder cancer is growing, and will be a key platform to inform patients diagnosed and living with bladder cancer, as well as their treating clinicians, how lifestyle changes can lead to the best outcomes possible.
Urologic oncology. 2018 Apr 24 [Epub ahead of print]
Marilyn L Kwan, Brandon Garren, Matthew E Nielsen, Li Tang
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA 94612. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599., Department of Urology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; Departments of Epidemiology and Health Policy & Management, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599., Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263.