Effects of tumor size and location on survival in upper tract urothelial carcinoma after nephroureterectomy

Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare disease with few prognostic determinants. We sought to evaluate the impact of tumor size and location on patient survival following nephroureterectomy for UTUC.

Data on 8284 patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy for UTUC in the United States between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed from the National Cancer Data Base. Univariable survivorship curves were generated based on pT stage, pN stage, grade, tumor size, and tumor site (renal pelvis vs. ureter). A Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the effect of age, comorbidity, T stage, lymph node involvement, tumor site, and tumor size on survival.

The median follow-up time was 46 months. A majority of the patients were male (55.4%) with a tumor size of ≥3.5 cm (52.0%) and pT stage <T2 (47.8%). The overall 5 years survival overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 51.6%. When stratified by tumor size <3.5 cm or ≥3.5 cm the 5-year OS was 45.9% and 58.5%, respectively. On multivariable analysis controlling for age, Charlson comorbidity index, grade, and tumor stage, tumor size ≥3.5 cm was independently predictive of worse OS (odds ratio: 1.13 [95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.26], P = 0.023).

Using the largest series of patients with UTUC undergoing nephroureterectomy, we demonstrated a worse survival in patients with larger tumor sizes (≥3.5 cm) but no difference in survival based on tumor location while controlling for other pathologic characteristics. Incorporation of tumor size into perioperative risk modeling may help with patient stratification and provide further prognostic information for patient counseling.

Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India. 0000 Jan [Epub]

Shreyas S Joshi, Laura L Quast, Sam S Chang, Sanjay G Patel

Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA., Department of Urologic Surgery, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA., Department of Urology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Norman, OK, USA.