Electronic cigarette (EC) use is gaining popularity as a substitute for conventional smoking due to the perception and evidence it represents a safer alternative. In contrast to the common perception amongst users that ECs represent no risk initial studies have revealed a complex composition of e-cigarette liquids. Conventional cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for developing bladder cancer and prior reports raise concern some of those causative compounds may exist in EC liquids or vapor. Urine samples were collected from 13 e-cigarette using subjects and 10 non e-cigarette using controls. Five known bladder carcinogens that are either present in conventional cigarettes, products of combustion, or solvents believed to be used in some e-cigarette formulations were quantified by liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Analysis of e-cigarette user urine revealed the presence of two carcinogenic compounds, o-toluidine and 2-naphthylamine, at a mean 2.3 and 1.3 fold higher concentration (p-value of 0.0013 and 0.014 respectively). Many of these subjects (9/13) were long term nonsmokers (>12 months). Further study is needed to clarify the safety profile of e-cigarettes and their contribution to the development of bladder cancer given the greater concentration of carcinogenic aromatic amines in the urine of e-cigarette users.
Scientific reports. 2018 Jan 11*** epublish ***
Thomas W Fuller, Abhinav P Acharya, Thiagarajan Meyyappan, Michelle Yu, Godugu Bhaskar, Steven R Little, Tatum V Tarin
The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Urology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA., The University of Pittsburgh, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA, USA., The University of Pittsburgh, Department of Chemistry, Pittsburgh, PA, USA., The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Urology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. .