Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the gold-standard tests for detection of recurrent disease during follow-up in patients with a history of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). High associated costs, as well as side effects, have driven the desire for inexpensive, noninvasive, accurate, and easy-to-use urine markers to detect bladder cancer recurrence. While many urine markers have been developed, very few have been clinically implemented. In this article, we discuss the requirements for development and validation of urine markers and the factors that hamper their clinical implementation. We also review current surveillance guidelines for NMIBC and provide an overview of approved urine markers for the detection and surveillance of NMIBC.
Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.). 2017 Dec 15*** epublish ***
Tahlita C M Zuiverloon, Florus C de Jong, Dan Theodorescu