This review aims to evaluate research surrounding the utility of urinary biomarkers to detect bladder cancer and predict recurrence.
Recent research has focussed on the evaluation of genetic markers found in urine to provide diagnostic and prognostic information. Furthermore, the isolation and characterisation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from the urine patients with bladder cancer provide an exciting new development in biomarker research that is set to expand in the coming years. Current urinary biomarker research is a broad field that encompasses the evaluation of urinary proteins, DNA, RNA and EVs to detect signatures that can be used to predict the presence of bladder cancer and provide prognostic information. EVs in particular offer an exciting and novel perspective in the search for accurate bladder cancer biomarkers.
Current urology reports. 2017 Nov 13*** epublish ***
Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford, UK. .