Puborectalis muscles (PRM) and ischiocavernosus muscles (ICM) play important roles in urinary continence and male erectile functions. Understanding of anatomy and surgical-injury related changes to these muscles is critical to monitor changes in continence or erectile function. Anatomical description of these muscles has undergone revisions because these conclusions were derived from cadavers. Our objectives were to: (i) elucidate male pelvic muscles by in-vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of these images and (ii) compare PRM and ICM thickness in healthy volunteers and symptomatic patients.
Healthy young male (mean age, 25 years; n=5), older male (age, 65-70 years; n=5), and post-prostatectomy patients with erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence (age, 65-70 years; n=5) were scanned on a 3T-magnetic resonance scanner. Images were acquired from slices above urinary bladder base to urethra entry into penis. Pelvic bone, bladder/urethra, corpus cavernosum, ICM, PRM, and prostate were segmented. 3-D models of each structure were generated and assembled into composite images, and ICM and PRM thicknesses were calculated.
We successfully reconstructed 3-D male pelvic floor anatomy including ICM, PRM, bladder, urethra, bulbospongiosus, corpus cavernosa, prostate and bones from the two groups. We documented significant reduction in PRM and ICM thickness in older men.
This is perhaps the first 3-D reconstruction of male pelvic floor structures based on in-vivo MRI in healthy and symptomatic patients. Observed reduction in PRM and ICM thickness is possibly due to age-related atrophy.
The world journal of men's health. 2020 Jun 01 [Epub ahead of print]
Jesse W Tai, Samuel R Sorkhi, Ishika Trivedi, Kyoko Sakamoto, Michael Albo, Valmik Bhargava, Mahadevan Raj Rajasekaran
Department of Urology, San Diego VA Healthcare System & University of California, San Diego, CA, USA., Division of Cardiology, San Diego VA Healthcare System & University of California, San Diego, CA, USA., Department of Urology, San Diego VA Healthcare System & University of California, San Diego, CA, USA. .