Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression.
This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels.
Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB.
Curr Urol. 2015 May;8(1):1-21. doi: 10.1159/000365682. Epub 2015 May 20.
Patra PB1, Patra S2.
1 King of Prussia, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pa., USA.
2 Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pa., USA.