Sacral Neuromodulation: Device Improvement and Current Applications in Urology.

Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) offers a therapeutic approach to urological patients suffering from idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome, with or without incontinence and non-obstructive urinary retention (NOR), who are not responding to or are not compliant with conservative or medical therapies. The exact mechanism of action of SNM is not fully understood but modulation of the spinal cord reflexes and brain networks by peripheral afferents is regarded as the main pathway. Over the years, surgical techniques improved, leading to the development of the modern two-stage implantation technique. The quadripolar lead is positioned percutaneously under fluoroscopy guidance through the third sacral foramen following the trajectory of S3. The procedure can be performed under local or general anesthesia with the patient in prone position. Current applications of sacral neuromodulation in urology are increasing thanks to the recent improvements of the devices that make this a valuable option not only in conditions such as overactive bladder and non-obstructing urinary retention but also neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2024 Mar 20*** epublish ***

Marco Spilotros, Salvatore Gerbasi, Francesco Lasorsa, Gaetano de Rienzo, Lorenzo Balducci, Pasquale Ditonno, Giuseppe Lucarelli

Andrology and Kidney Transplantation Unit, Department of Precision and Regenerative Medicine and Ionian Area-Urology, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", 70124 Bari, Italy., Radiology Unit, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", 70124 Bari, Italy.