Resolution of Overactive Bladder Symptoms After Anterior and Apical Prolapse Repair.

Patients often present with both overactive bladder (OAB) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) concerns. It is unknown whether treatment of POP improves OAB.

This study aimed to evaluate whether OAB improves after anterior/apical POP repair for anterior wall prolapse.

This was a prospective study of women with anterior/apical prolapse at or beyond the hymen and concomitant OAB symptoms, undergoing apical repair. Overactive bladder severity was evaluated with the Urogenital Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6) questionnaire and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 preoperatively and 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively. The primary outcome was a reduction of ≥11 points or greater on the UDI-6 at 6 months. Those who reported an ≥11-point reduction were termed responders. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with reduction in OAB symptoms after POP surgery.

A total of 117 patients met the criteria for analysis, with 79.5% reporting improved OAB symptoms after POP repair at 6 months. There were no preoperative differences between groups. The mean preoperative UDI-6 and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 scores were higher in the responder group (51.1 ± 16.8 vs 26.4 ± 15.1 [P < 0.001] and 44.6 ± 23.8 vs 22.8 ± 21.4 [P = 0.001], respectively), and the presence of detrusor overactivity was lower (29.0% vs 54.2%, P = 0.02). After regression, a higher preoperative UDI-6 total was associated with an increased likelihood of symptom improvement at 6 months (adjusted odds ratio, 1.14 per point [1.08-1.19]), whereas detrusor overactivity on preoperative urodynamics was associated with a decreased likelihood of OAB symptom improvement (adjusted odds ratio, 0.10 [0.02-0.44]).

Overactive bladder symptoms improve in the majority of patients undergoing apical repair for anterior/apical prolapse beyond the hymen.

Urogynecology (Philadelphia, Pa.). 2024 Mar 26 [Epub ahead of print]

Megan Abrams, Sarah Sears, Susan Wherley, Stephen Rhodes, Jeffrey Mangel, David Sheyn

From the University Hospitals Urology Institute, Cleveland, OH., MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland OH.