Who Progresses to Third-Line Therapies for Overactive Bladder? Trends From the AQUA Registry.

Overactive bladder (OAB) patients who do not achieve satisfactory results with second-line OAB medications should be offered third-line therapies (percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation, sacral neuromodulation, onabotulinumtoxinA bladder injection [BTX-A]). We aimed to determine which clinical factors affect progression from second- to third-line OAB therapy.

Between 2014 and 2020, the AUA Quality Registry was queried for adult patients with idiopathic OAB. For the primary outcome, patient and provider factors associated with increased odds of progression from second- to third-line therapy were assessed. Secondary outcomes included median time for progression to third-line therapy and third-line therapy utilization across subgroups.

A total of 641,122 patients met inclusion criteria and were included in analysis. Of these, only 7487 (1.2%) received third-line therapy after receiving second-line therapy. On multivariate analysis, patients aged 65 to 79, women, White race, history of dual anticholinergic and β3 agonist therapy, metropolitan area, government insurance, and single specialty practice had the greatest odds of progressing to third-line therapy. Black and Asian race, male gender, and rural setting had lower odds of progressing to third-line therapy. BTX-A was the most common therapy overall (40% BTX-A, 32% sacral neuromodulation, 28% percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation). The median time of progression from second- to third-line therapy was 15.4 months (IQR 5.9, 32.4). Patients < 50 years old and women progressed fastest to third-line therapy.

Very few patients received third-line therapies, and the time to progression from second- to third-line therapies is > 1 year. The study findings highlight a potential need to improve third-line therapy implementation.

Urology practice. 2024 Jan 12 [Epub ahead of print]

Dora Jericevic, Katherine Shapiro, Max Bowman, Camille A VĂ©lez, Rachel Mbassa, Raymond Fang, Michelle Van Kuiken, Benjamin M Brucker

Department of Urology, New York University Langone, New York, New York., Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California., Universidad Central del Caribe, School of Medicine, Bayamon, Puerto Rico., American Urological Association, Linthicum, Maryland.