Irregular bladder shapes identified in women with overactive bladder: an ultrasound nomogram.

In this study, an ultrasound-based bladder shape nomogram was developed using data from women without overactive bladder (OAB) and tested in women with OAB to identify irregular bladder shapes. The goal was development of a nomogram that can ultimately be used for non-invasive identification of a bladder shape-associated OAB phenotype. Transabdominal 3-dimensional (3D) bladder ultrasound images were collected at 1-minute intervals during urodynamics studies and at 5-10-minute intervals during oral hydration studies. These prospective studies enrolled women with and without OAB based on International Consultation on Incontinence questionnaire on OAB (ICIq-OAB) question 5a (OAB 5a≥2, without OAB 5a<2). Bladder perimeters were manually traced and refined using GE 4D-View software. Nomograms for the transverse, sagittal and coronal perimeter-volume relationships were developed for women without OAB. A power model was used to approximate upper and lower nomogram bounds with 95% confidence intervals. Nomograms were tested using data from women with OAB, and each participant was classified as having an irregular bladder shape based on the number of perimeter values outside the nomogram bounds. Nomograms were developed using 533 images from 27 women without OAB (14 from urodynamics and 13 from hydration studies) and were tested using 264 images from 24 women with OAB (16 urodynamics and 8 hydration). The sagittal perimeter nomogram provided the best results, with irregular sagittal perimeters identified in 6/24 (25%) women with OAB and 0/27 (0%) without OAB. An irregular sagittal perimeter was significantly associated with OAB (P<0.05). Ultrasound-based nomograms may enable feasible, non-invasive identification of a subgroup of women with bladder shape-associated OAB.

American journal of clinical and experimental urology. 2021 Oct 15*** epublish ***

Rui Li, Anna S Nagle, Kaitlyn M Maddra, Naomi Vinod, Suzanne A Prince, Sarah I Tensen, Devina Thapa, Blessan Sebastian, Dhruv Sethi, Abraham Alattar, Laura R Carucci, Adam P Klausner, John E Speich

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University College of Engineering Richmond 23284, VA, USA., Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine Richmond 23298, VA, USA., Department of Radiology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine Richmond 23298, VA, USA.

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