To assess the influence of gut microbiome on overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms progression.
This was a 3-year longitudinal study, Hirosaki in Japan. We assessed OAB symptoms and reviewed the medication records of each subject in 2016.
We extracted 16S rRNA genes from fecal samples and analyzed gut microbiomes via next-generation sequencing. We evaluated the changes in urinary urgency (UU) and/or urgent urinary incontinence (UUI) from 2016 to 2019. We defined UU/UUI-progression as exacerbation of UU and/or UUI. We compared the clinical backgrounds and microbiota structure between UU/UUI-progression subjects and non-progression (controls). We assessed the impact of gut microbiome on the UU/UUI-progression via multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Of 669 subjects, 126 were UU/UUI-progression subjects. These subjects had a higher age and prevalence of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use (14% vs. 5.4%, P = 0.003), irritable bowel syndrome, sleep disturbance, and metabolic syndrome than those without. We found the different microbiota structures between subjects with UU/UUI-progression and those without. A higher relative abundance of genus Streptococcus (harmful bacterial genus for human health) appeared in UU/UUI-progression subjects (3.8% vs. 2.3%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that age ≥ 65 years, current smoking, sleep disturbance, metabolic syndrome, and genus Streptococcus (Odds ratio: 1.05, P = 0.029) were independent risk factors for UU/UUI-progression. PPI use turned to be a significant risk factor on a multivariate analysis without including genus Streptococcus.
Gut microbiome might be associated with a risk for OAB symptoms progression. PPI use might cause gut dysbiosis and increase this risk.
International urology and nephrology. 2021 Oct 29 [Epub ahead of print]
Yoshiharu Okuyama, Teppei Okamoto, Daichi Sasaki, Kai Ozaki, Jung Songee, Shingo Hatakeyama, Tatsuya Mikami, Chikara Ohyama
Department of Urology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-chou, Hirosaki, 036-8562, Japan., Department of Urology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-chou, Hirosaki, 036-8562, Japan. ., Department of Digital Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-chou, Hirosaki, 036-8562, Japan., Innovation Center for Health Promotion, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-chou, Hirosaki, 036-8562, Japan.