The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in women with overactive bladder (OAB) or interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) to age-matched controls.
This case-control study compared numbers and types of ACEs in women with OAB or IC/BPS compared with controls based on the Center for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System ACE Module. Participants completed demographic forms, condition-specific symptom questionnaires, and the ACE Module (11 questions summarizing traumatic exposures occurring before the age of 18 years). Cases and controls were compared using χ2 and t tests, significance level P < 0.05.
Three hundred twenty-two women were enrolled from April 2018 to March 2019; OAB = 91 cases and 91 controls, IC/BPS = 70 cases and 70 controls. Overactive bladder group's mean age was 56 ± 13 years, and IC/BPS was 46 ± 13 years. Compared with controls, OAB and IC/BPS cases differed in race/ethnicity and education (P < 0.02), history of substance abuse (P ≤ 0.03), and median numbers of ACEs (OAB 3, controls 1; IC/BPS 4, controls 2, P < 0.01). Cases had increased odds of having 4 or more ACEs, a parameter known to be associated with poor health and longevity, and increased greater than 2-fold in OAB and greater than 7-fold in IC/BPS. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome cases had notably increased odds of exposure to abuse (physical/emotional/sexual) and witnessed domestic violence (all P < 0.01).
Overactive bladder and IC/BPS cases reported increased ACE exposures; more than one-third of OAB and more than IC/BPS cases reported 4 or more ACES, a threshold associated with poor health outcomes. Recognition of increased childhood adversity in OAB and IC/BPS has important treatment and health implications.
Female pelvic medicine & reconstructive surgery. 2021 Jan 01 [Epub]
Yuko M Komesu, Timothy R Petersen, Tessa E Krantz, Cara S Ninivaggio, Peter C Jeppson, Kate V Meriwether, Gena C Dunivan
From the Division of Urogynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.