Objective: To investigate urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) as a potential marker for idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). This is a quantitative measurement of urinary MCP-1 to establish baseline normal values that could help in future index studies. Normalised urinary MCP-1 levels are measured in female patients with OAB and aged-matched controls. Severity of OAB symptoms is correlated to normalised urinary MCP-1 levels. Patients and methods: Urinary MCP-1 levels were measured in 29 female patients with OAB and 10 normal female controls. The patients with OAB were either newly diagnosed or off any OAB oral therapy for at least 2 weeks. OAB symptoms were assessed using validated OAB questionnaires. Urinary MCP-1 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and normalised by urinary creatinine (Cr) levels. Results: The baseline urinary MCP-1 levels in female patients with OAB were significantly higher than those of the controls, at a mean of 210.25 vs 48.02 pg/mg Cr (P < 0.001). Patients who had severe OAB bother symptoms had higher levels of urinary MCP-1 (r = 0.03), also patients with OAB-wet had higher levels of urinary MCP-1, at a mean (SEM) of 209.25 (30.5) vs OAB-dry 185.25 (10) pg/mg Cr (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Urinary MCP-1 levels were higher in female patients with idiopathic OAB. The close association of urinary MCP-1 and OAB bother severity symptoms and OAB-wet suggest that inflammation plays a major role in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the sensitisation of bladder afferent nerves. Establishing urinary MCP-1 levels in patients with OAB hopefully will help future studies to confirm the correlation as a baseline and changes with treatments. Abbreviations: BMI: body mass index; Cr: creatinine; MCP-1: monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; OAB: overactive bladder; OAB-q: Overactive Bladder Questionnaire; PPBC: Patient Perception of Bladder Condition; UI: urinary incontinence.
Arab journal of urology. 2019 Apr 04*** epublish ***
Bilal Farhan, Huiyi Chang, Ahmed Ahmed, Frank Zaldivair, Gamal Ghoniem
Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.