This review discusses the available evidence in the current evaluation and treatment of nocturia in frail older adults. No evidence specifically evaluates the use of behavioral interventions in the treatment of the frail older adult with nocturia, but their use is supported in other cohorts. Behavioral modifications and optimal management of comorbidities remain the first-line treatment for all age groups and should be emphasized in the frail due to their favorable safety profile. No studies specific to the frail older adult support the use of pharmacotherapy. Some evidence exists for the efficacy of several agents in the older adult; however, this is difficult to extrapolate to the frail, and safety concerns abound. Desmopressin may be effective in the older adult, but a high risk of hyponatremia raises concerns for its safety, and therefore it is not recommended in the frail. α-Antagonists may have limited efficacy in men with known benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); they are relatively well tolerated, although the risk of orthostatic hypotension in the frail should be considered. β3-agonist trials suggest limited clinical utility. Antimuscarinics are not found to be useful in this cohort and are contraindicated in the frail older adult given the ability of antimuscarinics to cause cognitive impairment, delirium, and falls. No data examine the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the frail older adult. Additionally, the American Geriatrics Society Beers Criteria recommends against the use of muscarinics in those over the age of 75 years and therefore their use is not supported.
Drugs & aging. 2020 Nov 24 [Epub ahead of print]
Dylan T Wolff, Kerry A Adler, Corey S Weinstein, Jeffrey P Weiss
Department of Urology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, 450 Clarkson Ave, Brooklyn, NY, 11203, USA. ., Department of Urology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, 450 Clarkson Ave, Brooklyn, NY, 11203, USA.