Background Hypertension is assumed to be asymptomatic. Yet, clinically significant nocturia (≥2 nightly voids) constitutes a putative symptom of uncontrolled hypertension. Black men with hypertension may be prone to nocturia because of blunted nocturnal blood pressure ( BP ) dipping, diuretic drug use for hypertension, and comorbidity that predisposes to nocturia. Here, we test the hypothesis that nocturia is a common and potentially reversible symptom of uncontrolled hypertension in black men. Methods and Results We determined the strength of association between nocturia (≥2 nightly voids) and high BP (≥135/85 mm Hg) by conducting in-person health interviews and measuring BP with an automated monitor in a large community-based sample of black men in their barbershops. Because nocturia is prevalent and steeply age-dependent after age 50 years, we studied men aged 35 to 49 years. Among 1673 black men (mean age, 43±4 years [ SD ]), those with hypertension were 56% more likely than men with normotension to have nocturia after adjustment for diabetes mellitus and sleep apnea (adjusted odds ratio, 1.56; 95% CI , 1.25-1.94 [ P<0.0001]). Nocturia prevalence varied by hypertension status, ranging from 24% in men with normotension to 49% in men whose hypertension was medically treated but uncontrolled. Men with untreated hypertension were 39% more likely than men with normotension to report nocturia ( P=0.02), whereas men whose hypertension was treated and controlled were no more likely than men with normotension to report nocturia ( P=0.69). Conclusions Uncontrolled hypertension was an independent determinant of clinically important nocturia in a large cross-sectional community-based study of non-Hispanic black men aged 35 to 49 years. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unqiue identifier: NCT 02321618.
Journal of the American Heart Association. 2019 Mar 05 [Epub]
Ronald G Victor, Ning Li, Ciantel A Blyler, O'Neil R Mason, L Cindy Chang, Norma Priscilla B Moy, Mohammad A Rashid, Jeffrey P Weiss, Joel Handler, Jeffrey W Brettler, Michael B Sagisi, Florian Rader, Robert M Elashoff
1 Smidt Heart Institute at Cedars-Sinai Los Angeles CA., 2 Department of Biomathematics David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Los Angeles CA., 3 The State University of New York Downstate Brooklyn NY., 4 Kaiser-Permanente Los Angeles CA.