Hunner-Type (Classic) Interstitial Cystitis: A Distinct Inflammatory Disorder Characterized by Pancystitis, with Frequent Expansion of Clonal B-Cells and Epithelial Denudation

Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder disease with urinary frequency, bladder discomfort or bladder pain of unknown etiology. Based on cystoscopic findings, patients with IC are classified as either Hunner-type/classic IC (HIC), presenting with a specific Hunner lesion, or non-Hunner-type IC (NHIC), presenting with no Hunner lesion, but post-hydrodistension mucosal bleeding.

Inflammatory cell infiltration, composed predominantly of lymphocytes, plasma cells and epithelial denudation, has in the past been documented as a major pathological IC finding. However, the significance of the pathological evaluation of IC, especially with regard to the difference between HIC and NHIC, has been downplayed in recent years. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical quantification of infiltrating T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and plasma cells, and measured the amount of residual epithelium in urinary bladder biopsy specimens taken from patients with HIC and NHIC, and those with no IC, using image analysis software. In addition, in situ hybridization of the light chains was performed to examine clonal B-cell expansion. Lymphoplasmacytic infiltration was significantly more severe in HIC specimens than in NHIC specimens (P <0. 0001). Substantial lymphoplasmacytic inflammation (≥200 cells/mm2) was observed in 93% of HIC specimens, whereas only 8% of NHIC specimens were inflamed. Plasmacytic infiltration was more prominent in HIC specimens compared with NHIC and non-IC cystitis specimens (P <0. 005). Furthermore, expansion of light-chain-restricted B-cells was observed in 31% of cases of HIC. The amount of residual epithelium was decreased in HIC specimens compared with NHIC specimens and non-IC cystitis specimens (P <0. 0001). These results suggest that NHIC and HIC are distinct pathological entities, with the latter characterized by pancystitis, frequent clonal B-cell expansion and epithelial denudation. An abnormality in the B-cell population may be involved in the pathogenesis of HIC.

PloS one. 2015 Nov 20*** epublish ***

Daichi Maeda, Yoshiyuki Akiyama, Teppei Morikawa, Akiko Kunita, Yasunori Ota, Hiroto Katoh, Aya Niimi, Akira Nomiya, Shumpei Ishikawa, Akiteru Goto, Yasuhiko Igawa, Masashi Fukayama, Yukio Homma

Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. , Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. , Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. , Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. , Department of Pathology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. , Department of Genomic Pathology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan. , Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. , Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. , Department of Genomic Pathology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan. , Department of Cellular and Organ Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, Akita University, Akita, Japan. , Department of Continence Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. , Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. , Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

PubMed      Full Text Article

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