As more transgender patients undergo gender-affirming genital reconstructive surgery, such as vaginoplasty and phalloplasty, it is imperative for health care providers, including urologists, to understand the new anatomy and most common complications to diagnose and treat patients effectively. Although there have been several modifications to prior techniques as well as development of new techniques over the years, complications are still common after vaginoplasty and phalloplasty. This article focuses on the most common complications as well as the evaluation and management of those complications.
The Urologic clinics of North America. 2019 Aug 31 [Epub]
Jessica N Scahrdein, Lee C Zhao, Dmitriy Nikolavsky
Department of Urology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Upstate University Hospital, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA., Department of Urology, NYU Urology Associates, 305 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016, USA., Department of Urology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Upstate University Hospital, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA. Electronic address: .