Characterization of Peyronie's disease (PD) involves manual goniometry and penile length measurement. These techniques neglect volume loss or hourglass deformities. Inter-provider variability complicates accuracy.
Using 3D-printed models, we aimed to evaluate measurement accuracy and variability and establish computational assessment workflows. Five digital phantoms were created: 13.0 cm cylinder, 13.0 cm hourglass cylinder, 15.0 cm cylinder with 40° angulation, 12.0 cm straight penis, and 12.9 cm PD penis with 68° angulation and hourglass. Lengths, volumes, and angles were determined computationally. Each phantom was 3D-printed. Ten urology providers determined lengths, angles, and volumes with measuring tape, goniometer, and volume calculator. Provider versus computational measurements were compared to determine accuracy using t-tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. No significant differences were observed between manual assessment of length of penile models and designed length in penile models. Average curvature angles from providers for bent cylinder and PD phantoms were 38.3° ± 3.9° (p = 0.25) and 57.5° ± 7.2° (p = 0.006), respectively. When assessing for volume, hourglass cylinder and bent cylinder showed significant differences between designed volume and provider averages. All assessments of length, angle, and volume showed significant provider variability. Our results suggest manual measurements suffer from inaccuracy and variability. Computational workflows are useful for improved accuracy and volume assessment.
International journal of impotence research. 2021 Nov 06 [Epub ahead of print]
Dyvon T Walker, Tommy Jiang, Alvaro Santamaria, Vadim Osadchiy, Doug Daniels, Renea M Sturm, Jesse N Mills, Sriram V Eleswarapu
Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA., Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA. .