Tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, is approved worldwide for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH-LUTS). The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize the clinical data on tadalafil 5 mg once-daily, primarily focusing on Asian men with BPH-LUTS, and to update the current understanding of the mechanism of action underlying PDE5 inhibition.
Findings from studies have demonstrated that PDE5 is highly expressed in the lower urinary tract and supporting vasculature, and that PDE5 inhibition potentially decreases smooth muscle cell proliferation in the prostate, relaxes smooth muscle in the prostate, bladder neck and supporting vasculature, increases blood perfusion to the lower urinary tract, and modulates bladder afferent nerve activity. A total of 11 larger, 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of tadalafil, including four Asian studies, have been conducted globally, enrolling >3000 men with BPH-LUTS. In addition, two long-term (42- and 52-week) studies enrolled 394 Japanese and 428 North American men, respectively, with BPH-LUTS. Overall, tadalafil 5 mg once-daily resulted in significant improvements in the change from baseline to endpoint in total International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSS), IPSS storage and voiding subscores, and IPSS quality of life index compared with placebo. Tadalafil was well tolerated and had a favorable safety profile. These findings support tadalafil 5 mg once-daily for treating men, including Asian men, with BPH-LUTS.
Therapeutic advances in urology. 2015 Oct [Epub]
Osamu Yokoyama, Yasuhiko Igawa, Masayuki Takeda, Takafumi Yamaguchi, Masahiro Murakami, Lars Viktrup
Department of Urology, Faculty of Medical Science, University of Fukui, 23-3 Matsuokashimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193, Japan. , Department of Continence Medicine, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. , Department of Urology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi, Japan. , Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K. K. , Hyogo, Japan. , Lilly Research Laboratories Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K. K. , Hyogo, Japan. , Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Co. , Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.