Effectiveness of testosterone therapy in hypogonadal patients and its controversial adverse impact on the cardiovascular system.

Testosterone is the major male hormone produced by testicles which are directly associated with man's appearance and secondary sexual developments. Androgen deficiency starts when the male hormonal level falls from its normal range though, in youngsters, the deficiency occurs due to disruption of the normal functioning of pituitary, hypothalamus glands, and testes. Thus, testosterone replacement therapy was already known for the treatment of androgen deficiency with lesser risks of producing cardiovascular problems. Since from previous years, the treatment threshold in the form of testosterone replacement therapy has effectively increased to that extent that it was prescribed for those conditions which it was considered as inappropriate. However, there are some research studies and clinical trials available that proposed the higher risk of inducing cardiovascular disease with the use of testosterone replacement therapy. Thus under the light of these results, the FDA has published the report of the increased risk of cardiovascular disease with the increased use of testosterone replacement therapy. Nevertheless, there is not a single trial available or designed that could evaluate the risk of cardiovascular events with the use of testosterone replacement therapy. As a result, the use of testosterone still questioned the cardiovascular safety of this replacement therapy. Thus, this literature outlines the distribution pattern of disease by investigating the data and link between serum testosterone level and the cardiovascular disease, also the prescription data of testosterone replacement therapy patients and their tendency of inducing cardiovascular disease, meta-analysis and the trials regarding testosterone replacement therapy and its connection with the risks of causing cardiovascular disease and lastly, the possible effects of testosterone replacement therapy on the cardiovascular system. This study aims to evaluate the available evidence regarding the use of testosterone replacement therapy when choosing it as a treatment plan for their patients.

Critical reviews in toxicology. 2020 Jul 21 [Epub ahead of print]

Zelal Jaber Kharaba, Manal Ali Buabeid, Yaseen Abd Alfoteih

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Al-Ain University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates., Department of Clinical Sciences, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates., City University College of Ajman, Ajman, United Arab Emirates.