OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome after endoscopic therapy by injection of bulking agent in the treatment of occult vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) (no VUR on standard voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), but positive 99mTc-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan) in females who have recurrent febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case series was retrospectively identified of 24 females (mean age 15.5 years) with negative VCUG, but renal scars in one (n = 4) or both (n = 20) kidneys on DMSA scan. Endoscopic injection was performed bilaterally in 20 (83.3%) and unilaterally in four patients (16.7%). The incidence of postoperative UTIs was documented with a mean follow-up of 2.5 years (range 1-6 years).
RESULTS: The mean renal part function (DMSA scan) on the left and right sides was 53.5% (15-74%) and 47.3% (26-85%), respectively. Twenty-one out of 24 patients (87.5%) showed no evidence of any febrile UTIs postoperatively. One patient (4.2%) experienced a further febrile UTI 6 months after treatment. Two other patients (8.3%) had one questionable afebrile UTI, 4 and 3 years after therapy. Pressure-flow electromyography confirmed a dysfunctional voiding pattern in 12 patients (50%) treated with pelvic floor therapy and behavioural interventions before endoscopic therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Injection of bulking agent seems to be a suitable treatment for occult VUR in females to prevent further febrile UTIs. Patients with occult VUR should undergo a careful evaluation of possible urodynamic disorders such as dysfunctional voiding. These findings should be studied in prospective trials before drawing any conclusions.
Pichler R, Heidegger I, Schlenck B, Horninger W, Oswald J. Are you the author?
Department of Urology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
Reference: Scand J Urol. 2014 Aug;48(4):387-92.