High-Risk Patients Undergoing Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate Have Fewer Infections with a Longer Course of Preoperative Antibiotics.

Introduction: There are minimal data to guide antibiotic management of patients undergoing holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Specifically, management of high-risk patients who are catheter dependent or have positive preoperative urine cultures varies widely. We aimed to evaluate the effect of preoperative antibiotic duration on infectious complications in high-risk patients undergoing HoLEP. Methods: A multi-institutional retrospective review of patients undergoing HoLEP between 2018 and 2023 at five institutions was performed. Patients were defined as high risk if they were catheter-dependent (indwelling urethral catheter, self-catheterization, or suprapubic tube) or had a positive preoperative urine culture. These patients were categorized into long course (>3 days) or short course (≤3 days) of preoperative antibiotics. The primary outcome was 30-day infectious complications defined as a positive urine culture with symptoms. A t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associations with infectious complications. Results: Our cohort included 407 patients, of which 146 (36%) and 261 (64%) were categorized as short course and long course of preoperative antibiotics, respectively. Median preoperative antibiotic duration was 1 day (interquartile range [IQR]: 0, 3 days) and 7 days (IQR: 5, 7 days) in the short and long cohorts, respectively. Thirty-day postoperative infectious complications occurred in 11 (7.6%) patients who received a short course of antibiotics and 5 (1.9%) patients who received a long course of antibiotics (odds ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.67; p = 0.009). Variables such as age, positive urine culture, and postoperative antibiotic duration were not significantly associated with postoperative infection after propensity score weighting. Conclusion: In high-risk patients undergoing HoLEP, infectious complications were significantly lower with a long course vs short course of antibiotics. Further prospective trials are needed to identify optimal preoperative antibiotic regimens.

Journal of endourology. 2024 Jun [Epub]

Nikhil Pramod, Fabrice Henry, Suruchi Ramanujan, William Jevnikar, Jim Bena, Ryan Schwartz, Jaxson Jeffery, Samuel Sorkhi, Ruben Sauer, Shannon McNall, Samantha Freeman, Kevin Wymer, Jessica Mandeville, Simone Civellaro, Mitchell Humphreys, Naeem Bhojani, Smita De

Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA., Department of Surgery, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada., Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona, USA., Department of Urology, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA., Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Burlington, Massachusetts, USA.