Radiation exposure of urologists during endourological procedures: a systematic review.

Ionizing radiation is used daily during endourological procedures. Despite the dangers of both deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation, there is a lack of knowledge and awareness among urologists.

This study reviewed the literature to identify the radiation exposure (RE) of urologists during endourological procedures.

A literature search of the Medline, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases was conducted to collect articles related to the radiation dose to urologists during endourological procedures. A total of 1966 articles were screened. 21 publications met the inclusion criteria using the PRIMA standards.

Twenty-one studies were included, of which 14 were prospective. There was a large variation in the mean RE to the urologist between studies. PCNL had the highest RE to the urologist, especially in the prone position. RE to the eyes and hands was highest in prone PCNL, compared to supine PCNL. Wearing a thyroid shield and lead apron resulted in a reduction of RE ranging between 94.1 and 100%. Educational courses about the possible dangers of radiation decreased RE and increased awareness among endourologists.

This is the first systematic review in the literature analyzing RE to urologists over a time period of more than four decades. Wearing protective garments such as lead glasses, a thyroid shield, and a lead apron are essential to protect the urologist from radiation. Educational courses on radiation should be encouraged to further reduce RE and increase awareness on the harmful effects of radiation, as the awareness of endourologists is currently very low.

World journal of urology. 2024 May 09*** epublish ***

Vincent De Coninck, Laura Hendrickx, Xavier Mortiers, Bhaskar Somani, Esteban Emiliani, Emre Tarik Sener, Amelia Pietropaolo, Patrick Jones, Andreas Skolarikos, Thomas Tailly, Stefan De Wachter, Olivier Traxer, Etienne Xavier Keller

Department of Urology, AZ Klina, Augustijnslei 100, 2930, Brasschaat, Belgium. ., Department of Medicine, University of Antwerp, Campus Drie Eiken, Gebouw S, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610, Wilrijk, Belgium., Department of Urology, AZ Klina, Augustijnslei 100, 2930, Brasschaat, Belgium., Department of Urology, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton, UK., Young Academic Urologists (YAU), Urolithiasis and Endourology Working Party, 6846, Arnhem, Netherlands., Department of Urology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway., Department of Urology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece., Department of Urology, University Hospital of Ghent, Corneel Heymanslaan 10, 9000, Ghent, Belgium., GRC No. 20, Groupe de Recherche Clinique sur la Lithiase Urinaire, Hôpital Tenon, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

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