Percutaneous management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

The development of endoscopic and minimally invasive techniques has revolutionized the treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Patients can now undergo successful UPJO repair without the morbidity and complications associated with open surgery. Laparoscopic and robotic repair has supplanted open surgery as the gold standard, but percutaneous endoscopic treatment remains a relevant alternative to more invasive surgery. This review will focus on the percutaneous approach for the treatment of UPJO.

Percutaneous endopyelotomy was popularized during the 1980 s due to advances in the field of endourology, allowing for well tolerated and reliable percutaneous access to the kidney. After percutaneous access to the kidney is achieved, the narrowed ureter at the UPJ is incised in a full thickness fashion in the posterolateral position from the ureteral lumen to the periureteral fat. Success rates for this procedure are nearly 90% at high-volume centres. The ideal patient who has success with percutaneous endopyelotomy has a short segment of narrowing less than 2 cm, no crossing vessel, good ipsilateral renal function and mild hydronephrosis.

Although the development of laparoscopic and robotic approaches to pyeloplasty has produced outcomes that surpass those of percutaneous endopyelotomy, it remains a viable option in the appropriately selected patient, but success rates tend to decrease with longer follow up.

Current opinion in urology. 2023 Mar 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Hal D Kominsky, Brett A Johnson

Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.