Calculous pyonephrosis is a disease characterized by infectious hydronephrosis associated with pyogenic destruction of the renal parenchyma, with complete or almost complete loss of renal function.
The clinical data of laparoscopic nephrolithotomy performed at Peking University People's Hospital from May 2017 to June 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. Eight patients (2 men; 6 women) aged 27 to 65 years (average age, 45.8 years) were included. Among them, 7 patients were treated with retroperitoneal approach and 1 patient by transperitoneal approach. All patients had received more than one endoscopic lithotripsy before nephrectomy. Renal dynamic imaging and computed tomography revealed the absence of function in pyonephrosis before nephrectomy. General clinical data and perioperative data were recorded. All nephrectomies were performed by the same physician.
Laparoscopic surgery was successfully performed in 7 patients; however, 1 patient underwent open surgery because of bleeding. The operation time, average operation time, and blood loss were 1.5-4.5 h, 3.4 h, and 100-1000 ml (average, 300 ml), respectively. The postoperative pathology showed inflammatory renal disease in 6 patients, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in 1 patient, and high-grade urothelial cancer in 1 patient. The average postoperative hospital stay was 5.3 days. One patient had a Clavien-Dindo Grade IIIb complication (severe hematuria), which required laparotomy, and was found that there was bleeding of ureteral stump. None of the patients experienced poor healing of endoscopic wounds.
For patients with complicated calculous pyonephrosis, renal inflammation could not be effectively controlled, and renal function was seriously damaged. Thus, kidneys should be immediately resected. With laparoscopy, patients may recover quickly, but surgeons require enough experience when performing laparoscopy to achieve safety.
BMC surgery. 2020 Dec 10*** epublish ***
Jun Liu, Liang Chen, Lizhe An, Kai Ma, Xiongjun Ye, Qingquan Xu, Xiaobo Huang, Liulin Xiong
Urology and Lithotripsy Center, Peking University People's Hospital, 133 Fuchengmen inner Street, Beijing, 100034, People's Republic of China., Urology and Lithotripsy Center, Peking University People's Hospital, 133 Fuchengmen inner Street, Beijing, 100034, People's Republic of China. ., Urology and Lithotripsy Center, Peking University People's Hospital, 133 Fuchengmen inner Street, Beijing, 100034, People's Republic of China. .