Rapid lethal exacerbation and recurrence featuring acute leukemoid reaction (ALR) after retrolaparoscopic radical nephrectomy (RN) is a relatively rare clinical incident. Performing the reoperation for the patient and analyzing the tissue-based genetic mutation information postoperatively are a skill-demanding and meaningful task, which have been even more rarely reported.
We present a case with a large right renal mass (13.0 × 10.0 × 8.0 cm). This 71-year-old male patient underwent the retrolaparoscopic RN in our department. The operation was technically precise and successful with final pathological diagnosis of hybrid (clear cell and papillary type) renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, 10 days after the patient was discharged, he was readmitted with the chief complaint of high fever with severe right flank pain. CT scanning revealed that right retroperitoneal hematoma and the blood routine showed the dramatic elevation of white blood cell count (WBC). Even though the immediate broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered without delay and subsequent percutaneous puncturing and drainage was performed, the patient's condition still exacerbated rapidly. In spite of the reoperation of hematoma evacuation, the patient died of multiple organ failure 10 days after the reoperation. The pathological result of reoperation showed the necrotic and hematoma tissue blended with RCC tumor cells (nuclear grading III), and both of the postoperative tissue-originated comprehensive genomic profiling by using the specimens from the RN and reoperation respectively indicated significant mutations of some oncogenes which might have potential relevance with ALR. Besides, both of the immunohistochemical (IHC) staining results from primary surgical renal mass and reoperative resected tissue revealed the positive expressions of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF).
ALR may be a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with RCC, and comprehensive genomic profiling as well as the alterative expression of G-CSF can help to provide potential valuable genetic etiological information and evidence for guiding the potential effective molecular-targeting therapy.
World journal of surgical oncology. 2020 Jul 06*** epublish ***
Xuhui Zhang, Lijuan Yan, Xiaobin Yuan, Tao Bai, Lei Zhang, Shuaihong Han
Department of Urology, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, No. 85, Jiefangnan Road, Taiyuan, 030001, Shanxi, China. ., Shanxi Cancer Institute, Shanxi Cancer Hospital, Taiyuan, 030000, Shanxi, China., Department of Urology, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, No. 85, Jiefangnan Road, Taiyuan, 030001, Shanxi, China., Department of Pathology, First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, 030001, Shanxi, China.