Radical prostatectomy performed via robotic, transperitoneal and extraperitoneoscopic approaches: functional and early oncological outcomes.

Oncological remission along with high postoperative functionality [continence and erectile function (EF)] are the main aspects of prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare functional and oncological treatment results achieved after a nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (RP) via transperitoneal (TPRP), extraperitoneal (EPRP) and robot-assisted (RARP) approach.

From March 2015 to March 2016, 507 RP were performed at the Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health (Moscow, Russia). A total of 264 patients with localized (cТ1а-2с) prostate cancer [prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <20 ng/ml, Gleason score ≤7], intact prostate capsule (according to MRI), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) ≥19 and a life expectancy >10 years were included into the retrospective study. All the surgeries were performed by a single surgeon. The outcomes were evaluated after urethral catheter removal and 3-6-12 months after RP.

Nerve preservation (NP) was performed for 153 patients without significant distinctions in time (р = 0.064) and blood loss (р = 0.073). The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score was lower for NP: 9.23 ±6.59 and 3.86 ±5.38 after 3 and 12 months respectively compared with continence after RP without nerve preservation (NP): 14.27 ±5.1 vs. 6.15 ±4.76 (р <0.001). Continent was 52.2% vs. 83.3% vs. 81.8% in TPRP, RARP and EPRP groups; р <0.001. IIEF-5 scores were 14.67 ±9.4, 4.2 ±4.26 and 4.0 ±2.07 after RARP, TPRP and EPRP respectively (р = 0.002). After 12 months the PSA: TPRP = 0.11 ±0.19, RARP = 0.03 ±0.05 and EPRP = 0.53 ±1.87 ng/ml (р <0.001). Outcomes depend on surgical approach and was better in the RARP-group (AUC = 0.768 ±0.034 (CI 95% 0,701-0.834; р <0.001).

We suggest RARP with NP as a method of choice for treatment of prostate cancer in patients interested in preservation of EF and quality of life in general.

Central European journal of urology. 2018 Oct 30 [Epub]

Leonid Rapoport, Ofer Yossepowitch, Evgeniy Shpot, Denis Chinenov, Yaroslav Chernov, Maria Yurova, Dmitry Enikeev

Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia., Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Israel., Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia.