Neurogenic bladder occur as a consequence of several conditions, most commonly posterior urethral valves syndrome, spina bifida, tethered cord, sacral agenesis, and Arnold-Chiari malformation. It is characterized by diminished bladder capacity and/or reduced compliance, associated with high-pressure voiding that can lead to deterioration of renal function if left untreated. When medical management fails, bladder reconstruction with bowel (aumentation ileocystoplasty) becomes the treatment of choice for these patients. In most cases, it is accompanied by the creation of a continent catheterizable channel, with the appendix being the most commonly used conduit (Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy). Conventional open surgery has proven to be an efficient and safe approach in these patients. However, robot-assisted surgery not only offers a cosmetic advantage, but also results in a shorter hospital stay, less postoperative pain, and even decreased number of adhesions (as shown in porcine models). Nevertheless, the complexity of this technique has limited the wide adoption of this approach. We seek to provide a technical guide to robot-assisted laparoscopic ileocystoplasty and Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy in pediatric patients, as well as a critical review of literature about the perioperative care of these patients.
Journal of endourology. 2018 May [Epub]
Nimrod S Barashi, Maria Veronica Rodriguez, Vignesh T Packiam, Mohan S Gundeti
Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center , Chicago, Illinois.