At the prostate cancer session at ASCO 2018, Dr. Caffo and colleagues presented results of the CASTOR study assessing cumulative survival outcomes according to the different sequence strategies with new agents after first-line docetaxel progression among men with mCRPC. This study was designed as a pooled analysis of individual data from studies published or presented at main international meetings prior to November 30, 2015 on mCRPC patients sequentially treated with first-line docetaxel followed by at least two agents. Among 24 reports identified, all corresponding authors of the published papers meeting study criteria were prompted to provide individual data of the patients evaluated in their work. When possible, updated data were collected. The authors calculated OS from the second-line start by sequence strategy, including three different types of new agent sequences after docetaxel:
- One new hormone agent (abiraterone or enzalutamide) followed by cabazitaxel: NHA→CABA
- Cabazitaxel followed by abiraterone or enzalutamide: CABA→NHA
- One new hormonal agent followed by the other new hormonal agent: NHA→NHA
Cumulative OS did not differ significantly among the three different strategies (median cumulative OS ranging 21.1-22.1 month, p = 0.957). Patients treated with new hormonal second-line therapy had a statistically significant longer PFS compared to patients receiving cabazitaxel in the second line (median 6.1, 95%CI 5.7-6.5 vs 5.6, 95%CI 4.9-6.3 months, p < 0.0001). However, in the third-line, cabazitaxel led to a statistically significant prolongation of OS (from the third-line start) compared to new hormonal agents: median OS 12.2 (95%CI 11.2-13.2) vs 9.1 (95%CI 7.3-11.0) months (p = 0.039). In the case of a new hormonal agent-based second-line patients with a longer PFS (> 6 months) were more frequently treated with a new hormonal agent in third-line. In this setting, the sequence NHA→ NHA led to a cumulative OS worse than NHA → CABA: median OS 24.8 (95%CI 21.4-28.3) vs 30.0 (95%CI 27.5-32.5) months (p = 0.022).
Given that nearly 10 years have passed since the first reporting of clinical trials assessing therapy after progression on docetaxel for men with mCRPC, studies assessing the importance of treatment sequence are important. Recognizing the limits of a retrospective analysis, this study suggests a potential benefit of cabazitaxel in the third-line setting after a new hormonal agent. As per the authors, additional analyses are ongoing to hopefully reduce the biases secondary to the retrospective nature of the study.
Presented By: Orazio Caffo, Santa Chiara Hospital, Trento, Italy
Co-Authors: Michel Wissing, Diletta Bianchini, Andre M. Bergman, Frederik BirkebÃ¦k Thomsen, Sebastian Schmid, Evan Y. Yu, Evangelos Bournakis, Avishay Sella, Umberto Basso, Ugo De Giorgi, Marcello Tucci, Hans Gelderblom, Luca Galli, Isabella Sperduti, Stephane Oudard, CASTOR study's investigators; Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands; The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, United Kingdom; Department of Medical Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Copenhagen Prostate Cancer Center, Department of Urology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Urology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, TU München, Munich, Germany; Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA; Hellenic Group of Young Oncologists (HeGYO), Hellenic Society of Medical Oncology (HeSMO), Athens, Greece; Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Tzrifin, Israel; Istituto Oncologico Veneto IOV - IRCCS, Padova, Italy; Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori IRCCS, Meldola, Italy; San Luigi Hospital, Orbassano, Italy; Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands; Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Pisa, Italy; Bio-Statistics Unit, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy; Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France
Written by: Zachary Klaassen, MD, Urologic Oncology Fellow, University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Twitter: @zklaassen_md at the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting - June 1-5, 2018 – Chicago, IL USA
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